Definition Naval Agreement

The United States, the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Japan were allies in the First World War; But when the German threat seemed over, a sea arms race between the former allies seemed likely for years to come. [2] The government of President Woodrow Wilson had already announced plans to expand the U.S. Navy from 1916 to 1919, which would have led to a huge fleet of 50 modern battleships. In 1921, U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes invited nine nations to Washington to .C to talk about the reduction of the navy and the situation in the Far East. The United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy were invited to participate in discussions on reducing naval capacity, while Belgium, China, Portugal and the Netherlands were invited to participate in discussions on the situation in the Far East. The Naval Conference in Washington revealed three important treaties: the Treaty of Five Powers, the Treaty of Four Powers and the Nine-Power Treaty. Simon was dissatisfied with Ribbentrop`s behaviour and stated that such statements were at odds with normal negotiations before leaving the negotiations. A few days later, on 5 June 1935, the British delegation changed its mind. Simon had discussed things with the British cabinet, who thought the deal might be in their best interest, and Simon was ordered to accept Hitler`s offer while it was still on the table. They feared that Hitler would withdraw his offer and embark on the construction of the German navy, which is much higher than its proposed level. Because of the past, Britain knew that Germany could quickly have the same naval capability as it. In addition to multilateral agreements, conference participants concluded several bilateral agreements.

Japan and China signed a bilateral agreement, the Shangtung (Shandong), which returned control of the province and its railways to China. Japan had taken control of the territory by the Germans during World War I and had retained control of it in the following years. The combination of the Shangtung Treaty and the Nine-Power Treaty should assure China that its territory will no longer be threatened by Japanese expansion. In addition, Japan has agreed to withdraw its troops from Siberia and the United States and Japan have formally accepted equal access to cable and radio equipment on Japan-controlled Yap Island. In 1935, the powers met for a second naval conference in London to renegotiate the treaties of Washington and London, before they ended the following year. The Japanese left the conference, but Britain, France and the United States signed an agreement that declared a six-year leave on the construction of large light cruisers of 8,000 to 10,000 tons. This final decision marked the end of decades of controversy around cruisers. One of the great British demands during the negotiations was the total abolition of the submarine, which had proved so effective against them during the war. But this proved impossible, not least because of the French resistance; they requested an allocation of 90,000 tonnes of submarines[15] and the conference ended without agreement on submarine limitation.

[16] When the Navy began planning a war with the United Kingdom in May 1938, the senior naval officer, Commander Hellmuth Heye, concluded the best strategy for the Navy as a fleet of submarine cruisers, light cruisers and armoured vessels used in tandem. [50] He criticized the existing construction priorities dictated by the agreement, as there was no realistic possibility of a German “balanced fleet” defeating the Royal Navy. [50] In response, senior German naval officers began to commit to a transition to a cross-war fleet that adopted a trajectory guerrilla strategy to attack the British merchant navy, but they were rejected by Hitler, who insisted on Germany`s prestige to build a “balanced fleet”.